We propose two novel algorithms for distributed and location-free boundary recognition in wireless sensor networks. Both approaches enable a node to decide autonomously whether it is a boundary node, based solely on connectivity information of a small neighborhood. This makes our algorithms highly applicable for dynamic networks where nodes can move or become inoperative.
We compare our algorithms qualitatively and quantitatively with several previous approaches. In extensive simulations, we consider various models and scenarios. Although our algorithms use less information than most other approaches, they produce significantly better results. They are very robust against variations in node degree and do not rely on simplified assumptions of the communication model. Moreover, they are much easier to implement on real sensor nodes than most existing approaches.